Prostate Cancer – Important Health Information

Hello dear, here’s a review about prostate cancer, you should know that prostate enlargement is not the same as prostate cancer though there may be some overlapping signs and symptoms between these conditions. All men faces the danger of prostate cancer but it usually starts showing up around the age of 40 years. Please know that this information is not intended for you to self diagnose, whenever you need medical care endeavor to contact your personal physician. This blog is only to enrich your knowledge so you can take the right approach if you start noticing the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer.

The information is courtesy of “eMedicineHealth” and it was reviewed by Sheldon Marks, MD.

Prostate Cancer

**Please take the quiz below to evaluate what you know about Prostate cancer, the answer key will be given below
the article**

Prostate Cancer Quiz

What’s a myth and what’s a fact?

Many men are living with old preconceptions about prostate cancer treatment, and the effects on their lives. Separate the myths from the facts in this quick quiz.
  1. “Watchful waiting” is still a top option for this slow-growing cancer.
    True
    False
  2. Surgery always causes impotence or incontinence.
    True
    False
  3. Tests can help determine if you’re at risk for prostate cancer recurrence.
    True
    False
  4. Some drugs can slow the progression of advanced prostate cancer.
    True
    False
  5. Most men with prostate cancer will eventually die of the disease.
    True
    False

Understanding Prostate Cancer — the Basics

What Is Prostate Cancer?

The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It makes most of the semen that carries sperm. The walnut-sized gland is located beneath the bladder and surrounds the upper part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder.
Prostate cancer is a major health concern for American men. The disease is rare before age 50, and experts believe that most elderly men have traces of it.
In 2013, about 238,500 new cases will be diagnosed in the U.S., and about 29,700 will die of it. African-American men are more likely to get prostate cancer and have the highest death rate. In other parts of the world — notably Asia, Africa, and Latin America — prostate cancer is rare.
Prostate cancer is usually a very slow growing cancer, often causing no symptoms until it is in an advanced stage. Most men with prostate cancer die of other causes, and many never know that they have the disease. But once prostate cancer begins to grow quickly or spreads outside the prostate, it is dangerous.
Prostate cancer in its early stages (when it’s only found in the prostate gland) can be treated with very good chances for survival. Fortunately, about 85% of American men with prostate cancer are diagnosed in an early stage of the disease.
Cancer that has spread beyond the prostate (such as to the bones, lymph nodes, and lungs) is not curable, but it may be controlled for many years. Because of the many advances in available treatments, most men whose prostate cancer becomes widespread can expect to live five years or more. Some men with advanced prostate cancer live a normal life and die of another cause, such as heart disease. 

What Causes Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer affects mainly older men. About 80% of cases are in men over 65, and less than 1% of cases are in men under 50. Men with a family history of prostate cancer are more likely to get it.
Doctors don’t know what causes prostate cancer, but diet contributes to the risk. Men who eat lots of fat from red meat are most likely to have prostate cancer. Eating meat may be risky for other reasons: Meat cooked at high temperatures produces cancer-causing substances that affect the prostate. The disease is much more common in countries where meat and dairy products are common than in countries where the diet consists of rice, soybean products, and vegetables.
Hormones also play a role. Eating fats raises the amount of testosterone in the body, and testosterone speeds the growth of prostate cancer.
A few job hazards have been found. Welders, battery manufacturers, rubber workers, and workers frequently exposed to the metal cadmium seem to be more likely to get prostate cancer.
Not exercising also makes prostate cancer more likely.
Drugs that may lower the risk of having prostate cancer include aspirin, finasteride, cholesterol-lowering drugs and triglyceride-lowering drugs, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Adding certain foods in your diet may also help reduce the risk, including tomato sauce and vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage.

Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

All men are at risk for developing prostate cancer. About one man in six will be diagnosed with prostatecancer during his lifetime, but only one man in 36 will die of this disease. About 80 percent of men who reach age 80 have prostate cancer cells in their prostate. Besides being male, there are other factors, such as age, race, and family history that may contribute to the risk. 
Age. The greatest risk factor for prostate cancer is age. This risk increases significantly after the age of 50 in white men who have no family history of the disease and after the age of 40 in black men and men who have a close relative with prostate cancer. About two-thirds of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men age 65 and older.
Family history. Men whose relatives have had prostate cancer are considered to be at high risk. Having a father or brother with the disease more than doubles your risk for prostate cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. Having a brother with prostate cancer appears to increase your risk more than having an affected father does. That risk is even higher when there are multiple family members affected. Screening for prostate cancer should be started at age 40 in these men.
Studies have identified several inherited genes that appear to increase prostate cancer risk. Testing for these genes is not yet available. Experts estimate that the hereditary form of prostate cancer accounts for just 5% to 10% of all cases.
Race. Prostate cancer occurs about 60% more often in African American men than in white American men and when diagnosed is more likely to be advanced. However, Japanese and African males living in their native countries have a low incidence of prostate cancer. Rates for these groups increase sharply when they immigrate to the U.S. African Americans are the second group of men for whom prostate cancer testingshould begin at age 40.
Some experts theorize that this suggests an environmental connection, possibly related to high-fat diets, less exposure to the sun, exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, infectious agents, orsmoking. To date, the reasons for these racial differences are not understood.
Diet. Research also suggests high dietary fat may be a contributing factor for prostate cancer. The disease is much more common in countries where meat and dairy products are dietary staples compared to countries where the basic diet consists of rice, soybean products, and vegetables.
Eating a diet high in the antioxidant lycopene (found in high levels in some fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit, and watermelon) may lower your risk of developing prostate cancer according to several studies.

How Can I Prevent Prostate Cancer?

No evidence proves that you can prevent prostate cancer. But you may be able to lower your risk.
A diet that helps maintain a healthy weight may reduce your risk for prostate cancer. The American Cancer Society recommends:
  • Limiting high-fat foods
  • Cutting back on red meats, especially processed meats  such as hot dogs, bologna, and certain lunch meats
  • Eating five or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day
Healthy food choices also include bread, cereals, rice, pasta, and beans.
Antioxidants in foods, especially in fruits and vegetables, help prevent damage to the DNA in the body’s cells. Such damage has been linked to cancer. Lycopene, in particular, is an antioxidant that has been thought to lower the risk of prostate cancer. It can be found in foods such as:
  • Tomatoes — both raw and cooked
  • Spinach
  • Artichoke hearts
  • Beans
  • Berries — especially blueberries
  • Pink grapefruit and oranges
  • Watermelon
It’s not clear whether lycopene actually helps prevent prostate cancer, and recent studies have not been able to show that it does.

When to Seek Medical Care

See your health care provider if you have any of the following symptoms:
  • Difficulty initiating and/or stopping a urine stream
  • Frequent urination
  • Pain on urination
  • Pain on ejaculation
You should undergo regular screening for prostate cancer.
  • Men aged 50 years and older should undergo a yearly digital rectal examination and blood testing for prostatic specific antigen (PSA).
  • Men in the high-risk group, such as those with a family history of prostate cancer or of African American ethnicity, should begin screening as early as age 40 years.
Go to the nearest hospital emergency department right away if you have any of the following symptoms:
  • Urinary tract infection – Burning pain on urination, urgency, frequent urination, especially with fever
  • Bladder obstruction – Not urinating or urinating very little despite drinking enough fluid; producing little urine despite straining; pain due to a full bladder
  • Acute kidney failure – Not urinating or urinating little, with little discomfort, despite drinking enough fluid
  • Deep bone pain, especially in the back, hips, or thighs, or bone fracture – Possible sign of advanced prostate cancer that has spread to the bones
Spinal cord compression is a true emergency and may be the first sign of cancer. It occurs when the cancer has spread to vertebrae of the spine and tailbone region. The weakened vertebrae can collapse on the spinal cord, causing symptoms and problems with function.
  • Symptoms depend on the level at which the spine is compressed.
  • Typical symptoms that might signal acute spinal cord compression include weakness in the legs and difficulty walking, increased difficulty urinating or moving your bowels, difficulty controlling your bladder or bowels, and decreased sensation, numbness, or tingling in the groin or legs.
  • These are often preceded by pain in the hip (usually one sided) or back lasting a few days or weeks.
  • Such symptoms require immediate evaluation in the nearest hospital emergency department. Failure to be treated immediately can result in permanent spinal cord damage.

SOURCES: Prostate Cancer Foundation. Prostate Cancer Research Institute. National Library of Medicine. National Prostate Cancer Coalition. National Cancer Institute.


**Quiz answer Key**

Results: Prostate Cancer Quiz

  1. “Watchful waiting” is still a top option for this slow-growing cancer.

    You answered: False

    The correct answer is: False

    While watchful waiting was once a leading option for many men, these days it’s recommended mostly for elderly men — or those with serious health issues — who have early-stage, slow-growing prostate cancer. The odds are they will die of some other cause before their cancer causes poor health.

    For most men, doctors now recommend treatment with surgery, radiation, and/or hormone therapy. Today’s treatments are markedly improved, and less likely to cause major side effects. So the benefits of treatment usually outweigh the risks.

  2. Surgery always causes impotence or incontinence.

    You answered: False

    The correct answer is: False

    For most men, doctors now recommend treatment with surgery, radiation, and/or hormone therapy. Today’s treatments are markedly improved, and less likely to cause major side effects. So the benefits of treatment usually outweigh the risks.

    Watchful waiting (closely monitoring a patient’s condition without treatment) may be recommended for elderly men — or those with serious health issues — who have early-stage, slow-growing prostate cancer. The odds are they will die of some other cause before their cancer causes poor health.

  3. Tests can help determine if you’re at risk for prostate cancer recurrence.

    You answered: True

    The correct answer is: True

    The Gleason Score, based on how prostate cancer cells look under a microscope, indicates how likely it is that the cancer will spread. Scores range from 2 to 10. The higher the number, the more aggressive the cancer and the more likely it is to spread.

    A PSA blood test, which measures level of a protein produced by normal and cancerous prostate cancer cells, can help determine if prostate cancer has recurred. If PSA levels begin to rise at any time after treatment, a recurrence may be occurring.

  4. Some drugs can slow the progression of advanced prostate cancer.

    You answered: True

    The correct answer is: True

    Most prostate cancers need male hormones, such as testosterone, to grow or spread. Hormonal treatments can slow a tumor’s progress by cutting off the supply of male hormones or by blocking or countering their effects. Hormone therapy is often used to control prostate cancer that has spread. But it can eventually become ineffective, so a man may need alternative hormone drugs or chemotherapy drugs to prolong life.

    Researchers are also testing other ways to control prostate cancer. For example, an experimental vaccine called Provenge has been shown to increase survival in men with widespread prostate cancer.

  5. Most men with prostate cancer will eventually die of the disease.

    You answered: False

    The correct answer is: False

    About one in six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime, but only one in 34 will actually die of the disease. Most men with prostate cancer die from old age or another cause.

    **This blog also published at:

    http://www.sarfre.com/safreblog/prostate-cancer-important-health-information

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About safrebiz

Alumni of the University of Southern California, trained and experienced in healthcare management, pharmacotherapy, business and communication as a former Toastmaster. I like belonging to progressive and problem-solving groups, meeting new people and volunteering. I am a faithful believer and disciple of Jesus Christ because of his atoning sacrifice and unmerited grace offered to humanity. Because of the love of Christ we have hope of salvation from this sinful world. One of my best inspirational biblical quote is "God is our refuge and strength, always ready to help in times of trouble" Psalm 46:1
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